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New, Used & Refurbished Veterinary Endoscopes for Sale

Purchasing a veterinary endoscope can be a long process from researching the different types of endoscopes and pricing to learning to use and maintain the endoscope properly. Knowing which type of scope you need is a great start, but with so many options and compatibility needs it may be better to ask a professional. Should you purchase a new, used or refurbished endoscope? Will you need to train your staff to operate the endoscope? Many of these questions can be answered by an endoscopy equipment specialist.

Here are some general tips on what to look out for when buying an endoscope:

First, let's talk about endoscope cost. With so many different options and an industry that tends to hide their pricing this can be a difficult topic to traverse. We price our equipment based on many years of experience buying and selling. We show prices for some monthly specials on our shop page to give an idea of the cost of some endoscopy equipment. Buying refurbished is typically the lower cost alternative and you can even get a long warranty on refurbished endoscopes from MD Endoscopy, which leads to our next point.

A warranty on refurbished endoscopy equipment is typical, but the length of your warranty can vary significantly depending on the company performing the repairs. Most companies offer a one year warranty, some just a few months. Your endoscopy equipment is an expensive investment and it should typically last for more than one year, so we decided to offer a full twenty-four month warranty on refurbished endoscope purchases.

What if my broken endoscope is not covered under warranty? Contacting a reputable endoscope repair technician is the first step to diagnosing your equipment. Sending in your scope for diagnosis and repair is a simple process. You can start by submitting a repair request form online. Once you ship your scope to us it will be examined and diagnosed by one of our experts. You'll receive a repair estimate so you can choose whether to proceed with repair or consider replacement. Our repair tracking system notifies you of each update so you're never left waiting and wondering about the status of your endoscope repair.

Proper staff training is an important part of an endoscope purchase and can even prevent costly repairs in the future. You should ask your endoscope sales representative about staff training or support options provided with purchase. At MD Endoscopy we offer package deals with proper usage and staff maintanace training sessions. Contact us to ask if we will travel to your location to provide training services.

Hopefully we've helped clear up some of the questions you may have about purchasing your endoscopy equipment. For specific information on veterinary endoscopes for sale please check out our shop or contact MD Endoscopy today.

Why Buy Olympus Refurbished Endoscopy Equipment compared to New?

The biggest advantage of buying a refurbished endoscope rather than a new one is the price. Typical refurbished prices can be as much as 50% less than you’d pay for a new endoscope.
Buying refurbished goods can also allow you to obtain an older model that may not be available from the manufacturer any longer. This can be helpful when using an older video system that may not be compatible with a newer scope. You'll want to upgrade your system over the long term in order to keep up with the latest features, and buying a discontinued model should only be done in order to extend the time available to upgrade your system.
Buying a refurbished system from a company that provides a good warranty can be incredibly beneficial over the long term. You will save money on the price of the refurbished system during your purchase, and are also protected from any possible issues that could arise. MD Endoscopy offers the only 24 month warranty in the industry on preowned endoscopy equipment, so you can feel comfortable buying refurbished endoscopy equipment from us!

If you're looking to save money on a used or refurbished endoscope or endoscopy system, please check out our shop or contact us with your specific needs today.

Why you should properly maintain your endoscopy equipment

Maintaining your endoscopy equipment is vital to ensure that you are able to provide your patients with the very best service. Making sure that everything is properly serviced and cared for after each use will help to prevent major consequences affecting your patients.

Failure to properly maintain and clean your devices can lead to:

  • Cross Contamination: Failing to clean the device can lead to cross contamination in your patients, without thoroughly disinfecting and sanitizing your endoscopy equipment you could end up passing on deadly diseases. This is actually a major hazard when it comes to modern health technology.

  • Device failure: Not only does poor cleaning increase the risk of spreading diseases, but it can also cause your endoscopy equipment to get blocked, which results in it breaking down and malfunctioning – which can cost you significantly to either repair or entirely replace.

So how do you keep it clean?

To ensure that you are able to keep providing the very best service to your patients you need to implement a strict and clear procedure to cleaning and maintenance. This includes:

  • Keeping a dedicated space solely for the cleaning of your instruments

  • Manually clean everything as meticulously as you can

  • Keep clear records of when everything was disinfected and sanitized

  • Make sure everything is cleaned on a daily basis

  • Only use designated cleaners and disinfectants that have been designed for use on endoscopy equipment

By implementing these into your regular routine, you will be able to maximise the longevity of your equipment, ensure your patients are kept healthy and reduce the costs you spend on repair and replacing equipment.

When do you need an endoscopy?

There could be many reasons why your doctor has recommended that you get an endoscopy to help determine what might be causing your pain. It is a simple diagnostic procedure that helps them to see the lining and walls of your entire GI tract; from the oesophagus all the way to the rectum.

By being able to see this tract, they will be able to diagnose the exact problem and provide you with a treatment plan to help you feel better.

What is an endoscopy?

An endoscopy is a very thin and flexible tube that typically has a camera and light at the end. The thin tube is able to be inserted either into a patient’s throat or rectum and can be guided through the body, providing a live image back to the doctor. This live feed enables them to then see inside the body and examine for any problems or tears.

When would you need one?

After you have initially spoken to your doctor and they have spoken with you through your symptoms, they might then order an endoscopy to look for further problems to help their diagnosis. Typically this will be for a patient who is experiencing abdominal pain, bowel changes, chronic heartburn or has signs of intestinal bleeding.

Similarly it can help reveal signs of cancer, so patients with a family history of colon cancer or one who has a personal history of colon polyps should be examined to keep track of their health.

Most doctors will also recommend that men and women over a certain age have a regular endoscopy to check for potential illnesses. People over 50 typically have a higher risk of colon cancer so a standard screening can detect for early signs.

Testing for Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a debilitating chronic disease that causes inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the small intestine. Despite hundreds of thousands of sufferers around the world living with the problem, as yet there is no single test to diagnose the disease.

To confirm the presence of Crohn's disease in a patient, the doctor would typically conduct a number of tests such as:

  • Blood: to show signs of infection, anaemia or inflammation
  • Stool: to help reveal early signs of the disease
  • Imaging: An X-ray or CT scan could give a clear insight into the patient's internal structures.

One of the most popular and common ways however is to conduct an endoscopic procedure of the upper gastrointestinal track or a colonoscopy to visualise the lower tract.

For the GI track, the doctor would use a highly flexible and illuminated tube with a tiny camera on the end. This would then pass through the oesophagus and into the stomach and small intestine. The camera would then relay images back to the doctor enabling them to see inside the patient so they can examine any signs of Crohn's. Sometimes a patient might need have to use the capsule endoscopy method, which sees them swallow a tiny capsule which captures images all the way through the body.

If the former procedure does not show any signs of infection then the patient would typically undergo a colonoscopy which allows the doctor to see inside the rectum and large intestine. Once the diagnosis is complete, the doctor would be able to confirm Crohn's Disease and begin to prescribe a treatment procedure for the patient.

An In-Depth Understanding Of An Endoscopy

First and foremost, endoscopy is referred to as a process that enables doctors to view the insides of an individualu2019s body.

This is how doctors get to diagnose diseases in some parts of our bodies, such as:

  • Stomach
  • Colon
  • Ears
  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Heart
  • Urinary tract
  • Abdomen, and so many other parts.

Nonetheless, the main question remains u201cwhat really is an endoscope.u201d

When an endoscopy occurs, the doctors insert a piece of equipment known as an endoscope into the human body. The majority of these Endoscopes are simply thin tubes with a strong light and really tiny cameras at the end.

Its length and flexibility rely heavily on the exact body part to be checked. This means that a straight looking endoscope aids in looking at joints. And, a flexible one aids in viewing inside the colon.

On a general note, the endoscope makes use of a channel that the doctor inserts the tools. The job of these tools involves collecting tissues or providing treatment. The diverse types of tools you will find are:

  • Flexible forceps

They look like tongs and are used in taking tissue samples.

  • Biopsy forceps

They aid in removing tissue samples or any other suspicious growth

  • Cytology brushes

These are used in taking samples of cells

  • Suture removal forceps

They are tools used in removing stitches that are inside the human body

Before we delve into why you may need to undergo an endoscopy, it is best to let you know that you can purchase each of these equipment from M.D Endoscopy. We are a company that offers both refurbished and previously owned Endoscopes.

Reasons For An Endoscopy

There are diverse reasons why a doctor may recommend an endoscopy for a person. These reasons include:

  • Screening for and preventing cancer

A doctor may likely use a colonoscopy to screen for colorectal cancer. During this colonoscopy, the doctor may likely remove growths that are known as polyps. If they are not removed, they could likely develop into cancer

  • Disease diagnosis

To diagnose any disease or find out the cause of any symptom, the endoscopy recommended will rely on the body part to be examined.

  • Treatment

Endoscopes are used for diverse types of treatments. These treatments that will need am endoscope include:

  1. Laparoscopic surgery

It is carried out via a really small incision in the skin of the patient

  1. Laser therapy

It makes use of a strong beam of light to destroy every cancerous cell

  1. Microwave ablation

This makes use of heat to destroy the cancerous tissues.

Furthermore, the endoscopic mucosal resection or the endoscopic submucosal dissection is a surgery that makes of an endoscope as well. The endoscope is inserted into the patient's gastrointestinal tract.

Types Of Endoscopy

Endoscopy is of various types. However, the most common ones you will ever come across include:

  • Anoscopy

The tool used for this procedure is an anoscope. It is used in viewing the anus or rectum of a person. Also, it is inserted through the patient's anus.

  • Arthroscopy

The tool used for this procedure is an Arthroscope. It is used in viewing the joints and inserted via a tiny incision over the patientu2019s joint.

  • Bronchoscopy

The tool used for this procedure is known as a Bronchoscope. It is used in viewing either the trachea, windpipe, and even the lungs. Doctors insert this tool via the mouth.

  • Colonoscopy

The tool being used here is known as a colonoscopy. Doctors make use of it to view the whole length of a personu2019s colon as well as the large intestine. It is also inserted through the anus.

  • Colposcopy

The tool to be used for this procedure is known as a colposcope. It is used to view the cervix and vagina. Doctors place it at the opening of the vagina. This is right after a device known as speculum has been used in dilating the vagina.

Note that it is not inserted into the human body.

  • Cystoscopy

The tool used for this procedure is known as a cystoscope. It is used to view the insides of the patientu2019s bladder. Also, doctors insert it through the urethra.

  • Esophagoscopy

This procedure makes use of an Esophagoscopy. From the name, it is vividly clear it is used in viewing the esophagus. It is inserted via the mouth.

  • Gastroscopy

It makes use of a gastroscope. It is used in viewing both the stomach and the duodenum. If you never knew, the duodenum is at the starting of the small intestine. This is also inserted via the mouth.

There are so many more that we have not been able to mention. Nevertheless, M.D Endoscopy is the best bet for the ideal endoscopy equipment you need.

Preparing For An Endoscopy

When you want to prepare for this procedure, the health care team has to provide all the needed instructions. These instructions consist of how you can best prepare before the scheduled appointment.

Some steps you are to take include:

  • Do not drink or eat anything hours before the procedure takes place.
  • Blood-thinning medications should be avoided days before your endoscopy. It will aid in reducing the risk of bleeding.
  • You can take a laxative or make use of an enema to remove the stool from your bowels. This is done for a specific type of endoscopy.
  • Before your appointment, ensure to ask your insurance provider about the costs to be covered. You should find out the amount you are to pay. The form that will be given to you to sign entails the risks and benefits of this procedure.

At the end of the day, you will get to find out why our customers love us. It majorly has to do with the fact that, with us, they are capable of saving cash, and having peace of mind in the business.

With M.D. Endoscopy, you will get to purchase and enjoy all of the previously owned Olympus, Fujinon endoscopes, and so much more. These are endoscope equipment that makes so much sense.

To Wrap It Up

You can sell your endoscope equipment at M.D Endoscopy and also repair whenever you want to. We have been in his business for over twenty-seven years. Plus, you will enjoy a stress-free twenty-four-month warranty.

Getting Into Business With The Right Endoscopy Company

All the activities and tests a laboratory does are just as important as each other. These activities are usually dependent on equipment which vary from each other. One such important laboratory activity is endoscopy.
This crucial procedure involves the use of an endoscope to examine the inner parts of a body organ. Like every other equipment, however, this endoscope and other equipment used in endoscopy could develop faults, faults that could require either a replacement or repair. The sensitive nature of this equipment means that one cannot just trust the replacement and/or repair of these to anyone. Instead, professionals are needed.
One such leading professional in the world of endoscopy equipment sales and endoscope repair is MD Endoscopy. Now, down to the main point, why should you make sure you go with the right endoscopy company?
Buy refurbished endoscopy equipment
A good endoscopy professional should at the forefront of the sale of pre-owned endoscopy equipment. Instead of just being acquired and resold, these types of equipment have been checked for faults, repaired when needed and restored to optimum condition.
Having one of the largest stores of refurbished endoscopes and endoscopy equipment, some of the endoscopes these professionals have in store are bronchoscopes, colonoscopies, cystoscopes, duodenoscopes, gastroscopes, and ureteroscopies all of which are named according to the organ to which they are specific.
Expert services
If you are going to need external help, it is good to be sourcing for the help of experts, who not only know what they are doing but who are also leading professionals in their field. M.D endoscope is one professional in this field of endoscopy equipment sales and endoscope repair.
M.D Endoscopy offers particular endoscopy equipment repair services for equipment produced by Olympus, Pentax, and Fujinon. Whether these are large-diameter gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes such as Colonoscopes, Duodenoscpes, and Gastroscopes or they are small diameter endoscopes like Bronchoscopes, Cystoscopes or Ureteroscopes, M.D Endoscopy got them covered.
In a lot of fields, some have been present for a while and new entrants. The difference between these is usually the experiences the former have garnered while on the job, that the latter is yet to.
M.D Endoscopy has over 27 years of experience in the field of endoscopy equipment sales and endoscope repair. Over this time, the team of professionals has worked with different equipment, each with its peculiarity and requirement. The amount of knowledge amassed over this time has set M.D Endoscopy ahead of competitors.
Despite this timeframe, rather than being complacent and being stuck in the old ways of carrying out processes, all members of staff at M.D Endoscopy are aware of changes going on the field of science and technology and are learning about it. This knowledge is then being used to deliver the best value to customers.
When people are buying items, one of the things they look out for is warranty cover. M.D Endoscopy prides itself as being the only company in the industry that offers customers a 24 months warranty cover for all pre-owned endoscopes and endoscopy equipment purchase.
Asides this, customers also have a 12 months warranty that covers for endoscope warranty. This latter warranty which covers endoscopes brought in for repairs is said to be the longest in the industry.
These warranty help ensure that M.D Endoscopy continues to give people value for their money; especially if these errors are caused by mechanical faults, not human errors, and these occur within the warranty period.
Customer satisfaction
Fundamental to the success and growth of every business is consumer satisfaction. If the customer is satisfied, they would not regret entrusting you with their needed repair services; they would leave personal reviews about you, refer you to other people who might need your services and/or come back to your establishment when they need to have similar needs met.
That M.D Endoscopy has endoscope and endoscopy equipment for sale shows that these are gotten from somewhere. Asides repairing and selling these, M.D Endoscopy is also involved in the purchase of these.
Once they have assessed the state of the item, the extent of damage done and the repairs needed on this, they then assess the acquired information. The careful consideration of this information informs the choice of whether or not to buy these items.
Once these are bought, the necessary repairs are carried out on them and they are then sold as refurbished endoscopes and/or endoscopy equipment. This does not go to say that all such equipment sold are refurbished as M.D Endoscopy also purchases new equipment for the benefit of users. The users then consider certain factors like cost and then make a pick between new and refurbished based on the result of these considerations.
Whether you have this equipment in a singular, multiple, or large quantities, M.D Endoscopy is ready to buy these. There is an especial preference for Fujinon, Olympus, and Pentax endoscopes and used endoscopy equipment, as the team of experts in M.D Endocscopy is highly versed in terms of working on these.
Free Quote
To introduce potential customers to the business, to tell them about the different items available, and to present to them the prices of each item, are reasons why a quotation is used. M.D Endoscopy is one such company, that not only sends quotes, but these quotes are also free.
Requesting to receive these quotes has also been simplified as one can easily fill in their details into the available section of the website. This section has been placed front and center on the website and has an engaging yet encouraging call to action.
M.D Endoscopy is particular about turning website visitors into customers, or at least into leads, that will eventually become customers.
To Wrap It Up
Having a business transaction with a vendor does not have to be characterized by regrets and failure to meet up with said standards. With M.D Endoscopy, one needs not to worry as these are leading professionals in the field, who are trying to ensure they professionally serve professionals.

What is Sigmoidoscopy? Does it Hurt?

Sigmoidoscopy is considered to be a reliable and safe diagnostic method. It allows the doctor to obtain a large amount of information about the state of the sigmoid and rectum, as well as the anus. The practice is conducted using a flexible probe with an illuminator and a video camera at the end.

The colon has a length of about one and a half meters and consists of several sections - the cecum with the vermiform process, the colon and sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon (colon sigmoideum) has two bends that give this part of the intestine a resemblance to the Greek letter "sigma" ("u03c2"). The sigmoid colon passes into the rectum (rectum), which in turn ends with the anus or anus.

Sigmoidoscopy is used in cases where there is a suspicion of a lesion in the terminal part of the large intestine, i.e. sigmoid and rectum, as well as the anus. Most often, it is used to determine the cause and exact localization of bleeding, ulcers, fistulas, polyps, diverticula, determine the causes of abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, inflammation of the mucous membrane, detection of foreign bodies.

This practice is also very informative if there are suspected neoplasms in the terminal parts of the gastrointestinal tract. In the process of examining the intestinal walls, a biopsy (sampling) of tissues for the histological examination can be performed. In addition, during the diagnosis, it is possible to perform therapeutic practice, for example, coagulation of tissues, removal of small neoplasms, the introduction of drugs into the intestinal lumen. It is worth saying that endosurgical treatment methods are now used quite often due to their low invasiveness and wide capabilities.

In some cases, general anesthesia is used. Sigmoidoscopy is painless due to prior local anesthesia of the examined area. The depth of insertion of the probe is usually limited to 30-35 cm, but if necessary, with the help of a sigmoidoscope it is possible to investigate more distant parts of the intestine, up to the left (splenic) angle of the colon. To improve imaging conditions, a small amount of gas is injected into the intestinal lumen, which stretches the intestinal walls and makes natural intestinal folds available for inspection.

Due to the high reliability of this practice and the absence of contraindications, sigmoidoscopy is included in the list of mandatory preventive procedures that allow timely detection of various tumors and polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon. However, the procedure should always useu00a0well-maintainedu00a0sigmoidoscopes

Does sigmoidoscopy hurt?

Sigmoidoscopy is actually painful, according to reviews and comments from the patient after the procedure. It is worth noting that during tool insertion in the rectum, the patient will experience discomfort. That is why, to facilitate the progress of the practice, many experts prefer immersing the patient in a state of drug sleep.

This method of the examination allows you to achieve the effect of delicate anesthesia without significant inhibition of all systems of the human body. Medication sleep caused by sedation will last no more than 30-40 minutes. This time will be more than enough to complete a completely painless examination of the patient's rectum.

Bronchoscope: Types and Benefits

A bronchoscope is a special optical medical device used to study the respiratory tract (lungs and bronchi). It looks like a tube with an optical and lighting system. The design of the bronchoscope allows you to enter drugs, remove mucus and blood, foreign bodies. In order to do a biopsy, special handling tools are placed in the device. The camera work is coordinated and digitized, so the course of the procedure is immediately displayed on the monitor.

Types of bronchoscopes

There are two types of bronchoscopes: rigid and flexible. Let us understand the features of the application of each type.


Flexible bronchoscopy is also called fibrobronchoscope. Flexible bronchoscope consists of a tube with an optical part and a light guide. At the input end, there is a camera, and on the outside, there is a special handle for controlling the device. The visual and viewing tube is flexible and smooth. The diameter is about 3.6-6.6 mm. If the pediatric bronchoscope, the cross-section of the tube is even smaller - 1.8 mm. The length in adult and child models up to 60 cm.

Features of the use of a fibrobronchoscope:

  • examinations and manipulations are carried out under local anesthesia, the patient is conscious;
  • has less trauma compared to a hard bronchoscope;
  • it can even penetrate the lower parts of the bronchial tree;
  • widely used in pediatric practice and has the least number of complications.

Some difficulties in carrying out the procedure may arise from the fact that the patient is conscious and is afraid of future examination. Despite the fact that the practices are less traumatic, complications do occur. With the rough application of the equipment, nosebleeds may occur. Biopsy also causes minor bleeding episodes that are easy to handle.

When performing a more complex procedure such as transbronchial lung biopsy, the consequences may not be limited to weak bleeding. In severe cases, pneumothorax occurs. It can either resolve itself or require additional intervention.

Patients may have various side effects when applying local anesthesia. In this case, the procedure is performed under total anesthesia.


In another way, it is called rigid. A rigid bronchoscope is a solid tube with an optical and video system at one end and a manipulator at the other. The diameter is about 5-15 mm.

Features of the application of a rigid bronchoscope:

  • the procedure becomes extremely traumatic;
  • examination and manipulation are carried out only under general anesthesia;
  • suitable for removing large foreign items from the bronchus;
  • used in case of extensive bleeding;
  • for more precise application in the small bronchi, a fibrobronchoscope can be inserted;
  • it is useful when conducting resuscitation in case of liquid accumulation in the lungs;
  • when pathology is detected, it allows you to immediately perform a biopsy or complete removal of the altered tissue.

Complications of rigid bronchoscopy:

  • perforation of the bronchi;
  • aspiration of stomach contents;
  • bleeding due to coarse procedure or extensive biopsy.

Usually, many complications exist due to the use of general anesthesia with insufficient premedication or an incorrect dose of anesthetic applied.

Most popular models

In the world, there are several companies that produce endoscopic equipment used everywhere. They are characterized by a large selection of products, best quality, and extensive experience in the development of medical equipment.

Leading endoscopes manufactures are:

  • Olympus (Japan);
  • Everest VIT (USA);
  • Pentax (Japan);
  • Karl Storz (Germany);
  • Saraya Co. (Japan);

Moreover, Optimed also deserves special attention. The company, founded in St. Petersburg and has extensive experience in the production of endoscopic equipment.

The choice of a bronchoscope depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and the purpose of the bronchoscopy. The preference is usually given to the fibrobronchoscope and only in severe cases, when a flexible bronchoscope is not enough, a rigid one is used.

Preparation for Middle Digestive Endoscopy

Like all medical studies, digestive endoscopy also requires certain precautions and considerations to make it runs well. The endoscopist, and in part the anesthesiologist, are the general practitioners within the endoscopy room. Therefore, they must know everything about the patient and their overall health status before the start of the practice.

Other important factors include the age, body weight, medication received, hours of fasting, etc., as well as the type of endoscope that will take place.

In the pre-anesthesia consultation, an interrogation is carried out. It can be a brief physical examination, and the complementary studies and meetings necessary to perform the endoscopy without fright are reviewed.

Not all pre-anesthetic evaluations are done outside the endoscopy room or the operating room. Sometimes, they are performed directly inside before sedation begins.

This assessment of the patient allows facing the endoscopic procedure in the best possible conditions for each case. As a general rule, it is possible to advance a series of precautions before attending the study.

#1 Diets

It is essential that the digestive tract be free of food debris. It is to improve the visualization of the internal lining and to avoid eventual vomiting of the patient.

The video endoscope can only correctly capture the images of the digestive tract with the condition that it is empty and clean. Otherwise, the study could be difficult.

The patient is strongly requested:

  • Drink clear liquids in abundance (water, tea or very light coffee, defatted broths, gelatin, moisturizers without dyes, filtered fruit juices) during the days before endoscopy
  • Go on an absolute fast (which means that the patient should not ingest even water)

#2 Medicines

It is essential that the patient reports all the medications he uses, either periodically, temporarily or eventually.

  • If the patient has diabetes and uses insulin or oral medication, he should remember that he will be fasting for several hours. It is prudent not to use these drugs until after the endoscopy has been completed.
  • If a patient takes acetylsalicylic acid - aspirin in any of its presentations - daily or sporadically, it is essential that the endoscopist knows.
  • If a patient is given antibiotics (for example, to undergo dental procedures), the patient should inform them before performing the endoscopy.
  • If a patient is taking anticoagulants (for example, acenocoumarol, heparin or warfarin), the patient must go to the hematologist to receive instructions at least one week before the date of the endoscopy shift.
  • The patient is often asked only to stop taking medications that affect blood clotting or to interact with the sedatives. Sometimes, it requires a consultation with the professionals who indicated the medication.

#3 Allergies

It is essential that the patient reports on any allergy to medications and medical conditions such as heart or lung diseases and the presence of dental prostheses. It is essential for endoscopist and anesthesiologist on duty to know if the patient suffers from any drug allergy. This is to prevent an autoimmune shock.

The adverse reactions can range from irritation, or mild side effects (such as nausea and vomiting), to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Most pharmacological allergies cause minor side effects. However, it is desirable that they do not occur during an endoscopic procedure.

The most common allergy-causing drugs are usually:

  • the anticonvulsants
  • insulin
  • contrast media for iodinated X-rays
  • penicillin and related antibiotics
  • sulfonamides
  • certain anesthetics

Some adverse reactions to drugs are considered "idiosyncratic,". It is an unusual effect of the drug on the person.

It is advisable for the patient to plan the activity before and after the endoscopy to avoid surprises and setbacks. Moreover, having quality endoscopy tools are essential. If you are endoscopist or medical practitioners looking for endoscopes, feel free to check our catalog of quality refurbished endoscopy equipment. With us,u00a0you will get the best quality endoscopes with the best priceu00a0on the market.

What happens during a colonoscopy?

Another way to do a Colonoscopy

The doctor can ask during the examination if the patient wants to lie down on the back or another side. An assistant can also press his hands on the patientu2019s stomach. The investigation takes about 15 to 30 minutes. If the doctor carries out procedures during the examination, the examination will take longer.

In about ten percent of people, it is not possible to examine the entire colon. It then fails to move the endoscope up to the small intestine. For example, because of sharp bends or narrowing in the intestine or because moving the endoscope is too painful. In that case, the doctor may propose to carry out another examination to examine the patientu2019s colon.

In many hospitals, the patient can choose a colonoscopy if the patient want a whip during the examination. The doctor will discuss this with the patient in advance. If this does not happen, the patient can ask for it himself. It is essential that the patient indicates the intention before the day of the investigation using a robe so that the patient can prepare for it.


A robe is also called sedation. That means that the patient get soothing, sleep-promoting medication. The effect of a robe differs per person. Some people fall asleep, while others are only a bit dazed. The robe makes the patient feel more relaxed, and the patient feel less pain and anxiety.

The patient can follow instructions from the doctor. The medications for the cream are administered via an infusion. If the patient get a whip, the nurse will inject an infusion needle into the patientu2019s hand or arm. Medicine is then injected through the infusion.

The patient gets a peg on his finger. This allows the nurse to monitor the patientu2019s heart rate and breathing during the examination. This is necessary because when using a whopper there is a small chance of complications due to the medication such as breathing problems and problems with the heart. This applies especially to people who are over 70 years old and suffer from heart disease, lung disease or other condition.

Please note that the patient is not allowed to participate in traffic on his own when the patient receive a robe. It is therefore essential that patient arrange transport or that someone comes with the patient. In young children, a colonoscopy is usually performed under anesthesia. In adults, this adjustment rarely happen.


Do you need quality medical tools with affordable price? Checkout ouru00a0quality-tested refurbished medical toolsu00a0available for sale

What is Gastroscopy and when is it Performed?

What is Gastroscope?

A gastroscope is an endoscope that serves the continuous visualization of the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (gastroscopy). For this purpose, an optical unit, usually a camera chip, is inserted and advanced into the mouth via a flexible hose firmly attached to the optic.

u00a0This tube is used to transmit power between the examiner and the optical chip. It also houses an optical fiber cable for illumination, image transmission cable, cables, a channel for the rinsing of the optics and a working circuit for auxiliary equipment such as pliers, syringe needle, clips, and slings.

This allows interventions such as the removal of tissue growth (Tumor), hemostasis and removal of tissue samples. It is also possible to aspirate liquids from the stomach via the working channel or to introduce larger quantities of rinsing liquid.

The hose is flexible and has only low restoring forces. Only at the tip of the device, an approximately ten centimeters long section of the examiner can be angled by up to 180 u00b0.

Recent developments allow imaging with the light of defined wavelengths. There are also zoom endoscopes, which would enable a freely adjustable magnification, even the endoscopic microscopy is being tested in some centers.u00a0

When It Is Performed

Gastroscopy is usually performed to assess the cause of abdominal discomfort: pain, nausea, difficulty swallowing, heartburn, burning, etc. It is also the most effective method to determine the cause of illnesses that have their origin in the upper digestive tract.

Through this technique, tumors can be detected at an early stage. By extracting small samples of the mucosa, which are subsequently studied under a microscope, the distinction between benign and malignant lesions can be made.u00a0

How is the preparation of the test?

The stomach must be empty. Avoid the intake of solid and liquid foods from the previous night.

In case you should take any medication, you will do it as soon as possible and helping yourself with small sips of water. It is important not to take antacids and not smoke before the test.

The patient to be tested must inform the medical staff that they are going to do it if they are taking anticoagulants (aspirin or other drugs), if they have a severe cardiac or respiratory problem or an infectious disease of the type hepatitis, etc.

What happens after the scan?

After the scan, patient should wait a few minutes before trying to eat or drink the liquid. Once the effect has passed, patient can follow patientu2019s usual diet.

The result of the gastroscopy is known once it is finished. If biopsies and/or cytology have been taken, patient should wait several days to have the definitive diagnosis.

The complications that may arise appear in less than 1 in 1,000 and may consist of: distention of the abdomen, pain, hypotension, phlebitis, allergic reactions, infection, bronchial aspiration, hemorrhage, perforation, and cardiorespiratory arrest.

Endoscopy For Ear, Nose, And Throat

One place where endoscopy is especially useful is in the care of ear, nose, and throat conditions. Each of these areas have a specific type of endoscopic procedure, and here we will cover the basics of each of them.

Nasal or sinus endoscopy is called rhinoscopy. Rhinoscopy is performed by an allergist or an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist). The purpose of rhinoscopy is to visually inspect the nasal passages sinuses, septum, larynx, and nearby structures for abnormalities, such as structural defects, diagnose or remove nasal polyps, blockages, or determine or treat injury. Rhinoscopy can be used to diagnose recurrent or resistant sinusitis, drain the sinuses, apply antibiotics, or determine the cause of nasal discharge such as mucous or in the case of nosebleeds, or identify the cause of sneezing, snoring, or noisy breathing. This procedure is performed in office, usually in conjunction with a CT scan. A topical decongestant to reduce swelling and widen the passages to allow for the endoscope, as well as a topical anesthetic, which numbs the nose and helps decrease the chance of sneezing, will be applied prior to the procedure via a spray. The procedure is for most patients painless, side effects are minimal, and is considered a generally safe procedure.

Laryngoscopy is the term which signifies the endoscopic procedure diagnosing and treating conditions of the larynx. The procedure is performed by a physician, usually an otolaryngologist, or a surgeon. Laryngoscopy can detect abnormalities such as inflammation, lesions, and strictures within the larynx, to obtain tissue biopsy in the case of confirmed or suspected cancer of the larynx, to identify the cause of persistent or bloody cough, hoarseness, throat pain, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or a feeling of a lump in the throat, or other laryngeal problems such as a breathy, or weak voice or loss of voice, or to to remove foreign objects or polyps from the larynx. When the procedure is combined with bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy this variation is known as panendoscopy. For flexible laryngoscopy, the procedure is performed in the office, usually taking about 10 minutes. A local anesthetic is sprayed into the back of your nose and throat to numb the area and aid in suppressing the gag reflex. The patient may be asked to perform certain tasks to provide the doctor with differing views of the area. If a rigid laryngoscopy is performed, general anesthesia is administered and the procedure is performed in an operating room, and should be expected to take approximately 30 minutes to an hour on average. Flexible laryngoscopy side effects include temporary hoarseness and a sore throat. Rare complications include inadvertent injury of the mouth or throat, excessive swelling, bleeding, infection, pain, vomiting and gagging. Rigid laryngoscopy additionally carries all risks associated with procedures carried out under general anesthesia.

A common and popular procedure performed with an endoscope for the ear is endoscopic ear wax removal. The endoscope is used to directly visualise the ear wax, ear canal, and ear drum. Gentle suction with a low pressure suction machine is often used to remove the wax substance. This is known as endoscopic ear suction. The procedure is performed by Audiologists, Hearing Aid Dispensers and ENT doctors using an endoscope for the ear, called an oto-endoscope. The procedure generally takes about 10 to 25 minutes, with the patient awake and upright, though this time varies depending on the amount of ear wax, consistency of the ear wax, and depth of the wax within the canal. The procedure is considered safe and well tolerated, though there are risks. In rare cases, there may beu00a0 damage and trauma to the ear canal and eardrum, including perforation, temporary or permanent hearing loss, or ringing of the ear (tinnitus). Some patients experience dizziness or vertigo due to the colling effect of the suction within the ear, and this typically is short lasting.

Other, more specialized types of endoscopy not discussed here are also associated with ear, nose, and throat medicine. Always discuss any questions and concerns with your doctor, especially regarding risks of your procedure, and medications you may be taking.

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR)

Endoscopic mucosal resection is an outpatient procedure, and is performed using an endoscope. An endoscope is a long, flexible, tubular optical instrument, with a light source, used for viewing (and, with attachments, operating on) internal areas of the body.
For the purpose of endoscopic mucosal resection of the upper digestive tract, the endoscope is inserted through the mouth and into the esophagus, stomach, or upper part of the small intestine. If the location of the the procedure is focused on the colon, the endoscope is inserted through the anus. Endoscopic mucosal resection is performed with the patient under deep sedation or general anesthesia. The gastroenterologist performing the procedure will use the camera attached to the endoscope to inspect the lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

With an instrument attached to the tip of the endoscope, the gastroenterologist can then suction small nodules or growths and remove this abnormal tissue. The length of the procedure is typically around 25 to 30 minutes. After removal of all abnormal tissues in nearby areas, the tissue can be evaluated by a pathologist.

Some examples of the conditions treated or diagnosed by endoscopic mucosal resection include:

Barrett's esophagus (with high grade dysplasia or superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma)
Cancer of the small intestine (duodenum)
Colon polyps
Colorectal cancer
Esophageal cancer
Noncancerous growths of the uterus (leiomyomas)
Stomach polyps or masses or gastric cancer

EMR is considered to be a very safe procedure. Rare complications, such as bleeding or perforation of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, can occur, though this has been found to be true in less than 1% of patients receiving the treatment. Common side effects of the procedure can include reaction to the sedative, sore throat, and gassiness, cramps, or bloating. About 20% of patients may experience chest pain following the procedure. Fever, chills, vomiting, black or bright red stool, chest or abdominal pain, and shortness of breath or fainting may indicate a more serious condition and should be immediately reported to your doctor.

Most Common Endoscopic Procedures

While there are numerous specializations when discussing endoscopy, some procedures are much more common than others. Some of the most common types of endoscopic procedures are listed here for reference. These include colonoscopy, upper GI endoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and liver biopsy.

Colonoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's colon. The endoscope is inserted through the anus, and allows access to the lining of the large bowel, part of the small intestine, and the end of the GI tract (the rectum). Colonoscopy can detect and sometimes treat polyps, colorectal bleeding, fissures, strictures, fistulas, foreign bodies, Crohn's Disease, and colorectal cancer.

Upper GI Endoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's esophagus, stomach and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Upper endoscopy allows for evaluating symptoms of persistent upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or difficulty swallowing. It is the best test for finding the cause of bleeding from the upper GI tract and is also more accurate than X-rays for detecting inflammation, ulcers and tumors of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Upper endoscopy may also be used to obtain small tissue samples (biopsies).

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's rectum and a portion of the colon (large intestine).
This procedure evaluates only the lower third of the colon. Flexible sigmoidoscopy can be used to detect and sometimes treat rectal bleeding, persistent diarrhea, pain, colon cancer, and abnormalities that may appear on X-rays, fissures, strictures, fistulas, foreign bodies, colorectal cancer, and benign and malignant lesions.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Also known as ERCP, this procedure is used to diagnose disorders of the pancreas, bile duct, liver, and gallbladder. ERCP may help treat gallstones or other blockages, where stenting or sphincterotomy to open the bile duct is necessary. An endoscope is passed through the mouth, beyond the stomach and into the small intestine (duodenum).

Liver Biopsy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's liver, for the purpose of obtaining a biopsy of liver tissue.

Endoscopic Ultrasound - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's lining and wall of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, or colon. The ultrasound component produces sound waves that create visual images of the digestive tract which extend beyond the inner surface lining and also allows visualization of adjacent organs. EUS can also be used to diagnose diseases of the pancreas, bile duct and gallbladder when other tests are inconclusive, and it can be used to determine the stage of cancers. EUS provides a minimally invasive method for acquiring tissue samples from gastrointestinal tumors and lymph nodes that may not be easily accessible by other methods such as radiographic or surgical guidance.

Risks And Complications Of Endoscopy Procedures

While endoscopic procedures are generally considered to be relatively safe, especially when compared to traditional surgery, there are still some risks and complications associated with any medical procedure, and endoscopy is no exception.

Common side effects of some types of endoscopic procedures include discomfort, nausea or gassiness, mild pain, sore or scratchy feeling in the throat, and difficulty swallowing immediately following the procedure. More serious complications can include bleeding, which may be serious, allergic reaction to the sedation medication if sedation is required, infection from improperly cleaned medical equipment, and other serious conditions depending on the type of endoscopy performed on the patient such as:

Flexible Cystoscopy

Pain and swelling
Perforation or a tear along the urinary tract in the urethra or bladder
Scar tissue creation
Urinary retention following the procedure
Urinary Tract Infection following the procedure

Flexible Bronchoscopy

Nose bleeding
Vocal cord injury
Oxygenation issues
Biopsy site bleeding
Punctured lung
Anesthesia complications including breathing and heart issues

Flexible Laryngoscopy

Nose bleeding
Spasm of the vocal cords leading to breathing difficulty

Flexible Transnasal Esophagoscopy

Nose bleeding
Nasal pain
Biopsy site bleeding
Spasm of the vocal cords leading to breathing difficulty

Flexible Hysteroscopy

Pelvic inflammatory disease
Perforation of the uterus
Complications from fluid used for expanding the uterus

Other reported complications depending upon the type of endoscopy performed include (though rare) pancreatitis due to surgical trauma, Tear in the wall of the stomach or intestine, tearing of the esophagus or other areas of the upper digestive tract, chest pains and/or irregular heartbeat, feeling of being unable to breathe or shortness of breath, and dehydration from fasting before the procedure.

Of these listed, the more serious side effects are extremely rare, and can usually be managed with medications to control infection or surgery to correct bleeding.

Why Purchase Used Endoscopy Equipment From M.D. Endoscopy

Used medical equipment can have pros and cons. On the one hand, the price is usually lower, which allows hospitals and offices to purchase what they need at an affordable rate. On the other hand, however, you donu2019t always know at the time of the purchase if the equipment will function well, has been damaged, or has been improperly used or cared for. Additionally, there may be concerns about the safety of using second-hand equipment due to the risk of infection. Endoscopes and some endoscopic accessories are reprocessed prior to subsequent use. Multisociety guidelines detail the appropriate steps for reprocessing of equipment used for endoscopy, and strict adherence to such reprocessing guidelines is crucial to prevention of transmission of infection.

This is where M.D. Endoscopy comes in! We know the importance of getting quality equipment at an affordable price, and so we have been providing refurbished, warrantied endoscopes and other equipment for nearly 27 years. We buy, sell, and repair endoscopy equipment so you can have the equipment you need, from a company you can trust, and at a price you can love. u00a0We offer one of the largest inventories of refurbished endoscopes and endoscopy products in the world. We provide high quality refurbished endoscopes and equipmentu00a0from manufacturers such as Olympus and Pentax. We offer the ONLY 24 month warranty in the industry.

M.D. Endoscopy will buy all Olympus, Pentax and Fujinon endoscopes and used endoscopy equipment. We buy both large diameter GI endoscopes such as Colonoscopes, Gastroscopes, Duodenoscopes, Sigmoidoscopes and small diameter endoscopes such as Bronchoscopes, Rhinolaryngoscopes, Cystoscopes, Ureteroscopes and Intubation Scopes. We purchase Video Processors, Light Sources, Monitors, Printers, Image Capture Devices, Endoscopy Accessories and Endoscope Disposables. We pay top dollar and will meet/beat any reputable companies purchase offer.

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Overview Of An Endoscopy Unit

An endoscope is an illuminated optical device, usually consisting of a long, thin, flexible tube with a camera attached, which allows for viewing internal areas of the body for diagnostic purposes, and in some cases, taking tissue samples, or assisting in surgical procedures.

As technology advances in the field of endoscopic medicine, it is becoming more common to find such dedicated areas for performing these procedures, which were in the past most commonly performed in standard operating rooms. Any type of endoscopic procedure may be performed within an endoscopy unit, such as arthroscopy, bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, cystoscopy, enteroscopy, gastroscopy, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, laryngoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, ureteroscopy, ERCP, endoscopic ultrasound, and other specialized procedures.

An endoscopy unit may be located within a hospital, typically for the benefit of patients in need of emergency care, but at the current time most endoscopic procedures are performed in an outpatient setting, and many health care providers have such units within their office buildings.

In most cases, the unit will consist of a number of designated areas, such as a reception area for patients to check in, consultation rooms, changing areas, procedure rooms, recovery rooms, and sanitation areas, for example.

A procedure room within an endoscopy unit should be at least 200 square feet in size, and should contain all necessary equipment pertaining to the types of endoscopic procedures performed. This includes a patient trolley, the light source, processor, and video monitors required for producing and viewing images, monitoring equipment for monitoring the patient during the procedure, suction equipment for the purpose of allowing aspiration of airway secretions as well as aspiration of fluid through the endoscope, an oxygen supply, necessary medications, ancillary equipment, diathermy and/ or Argon plasma coagulation equipment, and a computer for the purpose of generating endoscopy reports.

An observation and recovery room should have a piped oxygen supply, full monitoring facilities, suction, resuscitation equipment, and emergency drugs, in the case that a patient may need emergency care following a procedure.

Endoscopic Plastic Surgery

Although endoscopy has been widely used in various procedures, perhaps most notably in regards to the digestive tract, for decades, it has only recently begun to gain traction in the plastic surgery field, and is now being used for both reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. In the case of cosmetic surgery, the use of endoscopy is greatly desirable due to the ability to perform procedures with a significantly smaller incision site, and in turn, smaller, less noticible scarring - allowing for a much better result in terms of aesthetics.

One procedure being performed now is an endoscopic brow lift, also known as an endoscopic forehead lift. This procedure is used to correct drooping eyebrows and soften worried or angry expressions that result from frown lines.
The surgeon will insert the endoscope into several small incisions (4-5 mm) placed just behind the hairline and/or behind the ear. The skin can then be lifted, and the muscle can be removed or altered if necessary. The goal of this procedure is to smooth wrinkles, tighten, and lift sagging facial features to give the patient a more relaxed and youthful appearance. This type of lift, however, is not an effective treatment for the lower face and neck regions.
Patients can generally expect a shorter recovery time compared to that of a traditional facelift, and swelling or bruising will typically heal within one to two weeks.

Aother popular procedure to gain traction in the endoscopic field is breast augmentation. The shorter incisions required for the endoscopic version of this surgery offer such benefits as minimized bruising, swelling, and bleeding, and can reduce the risk of nerve damage and desensitization.

All surgeries pose certain risks. Be sure to consult with your physician prior to any surgery to determine what risk factors you may be facing, and determine the best course of action for your specific circumstances.

Avian Endoscopy

Endoscopy [en-dosu00b4kah-pe] is the visual examination of interior structures of the body through the use of a special instrument, typically having a fiberoptic lens and a light source, called an endoscope. This type of an examination allows a doctor to diagnose illnesses, perform biopsies, explore injuries or other damage, and in some cases even treat some conditions without the need for more invasive surgical procedures. There are numerous benefits to this type of exploration or treatment, such as reduced recovery times, smaller incisions leading to less bleeding and therefore the necessity for transfusion is reduced, a reduction in scarring, and less pain from the incision, meaning the patient will need little or no pain medication in most cases, and both the incision wound and the internal organs are less exposed to infection, for example. In most cases, patients are discharged on the same day and can return to their normal activities much more quickly than after a standard open surgery type of procedure.

The use of miniature endoscopic equipment that has been pioneered in human pediatric laparoscopy has extended to be very useful in avian medicine. Birds as small as 100g in size are able to be examined. It has long been common practice for avian veterinarians to use endoscopy to determine the gender of companion birds. More recently this has been replaced by DNA testing to determine gender to some extent, though those individuals involved with breeders, wholesalers, or retailers may still find the traditional method more appealing due to the ability to immediately determine the sex of the bird, compared to the lengthy process of DNA determination. Today, avian endoscopy includesu00a0coelioscopy, tracheoscopy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and even recently adding endosurgery to the growing list of common procedures. The endoscope can also be used to retrieve foreign objects that may have been ingested by the bird. Cloacal examinations can be performed to better identify inflammatory conditions or obtain biopsy samples of tumors.

Endoscopy in avian medicine for the most part is, at this time, used more as a diagnostic procedure rather than a curative solution. Most of the current endoscopic procedures are single-entry techniques. The majority of all organs of clinical interest can be examined, including the oral cavity, esophagus, crop, proventriculus and ventriculus, glottis, and trachea, liver, lungs, air sacs, heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, spleen, pancreas,u00a0and intestinal tract, as well as the cloaca,u00a0 gonads, oviduct, and shell gland, for example.

To minimize the risk of post surgical infection, all endoscopic equipment should be thoroughly and properly cleaned and sterilized between uses, following the strict procedures and guidelines set forth by the manufacturer and health industry standards.

Endoscopy is a practical, affordable, and extremely versatile addition to any practice and can vastly improve upon the level of care provided for avian patients.u00a0 The capital investment is of a similar range to that of ultrasonography or radiography (typically costing between $10,000 and $20,000 for a modern rigid endoscopy system) and similarly to other diagnostic imaging modalities, is an appropriate tool for multiple species, such as cats, dogs,u00a0 rabbits, rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and even fish.

Endoscopy Complications And Risks


Your family doctor may perform sigmoidoscopy in their office, however, all of the other endoscopy procedures are usually performed by gastroenterology specialists (gastroenterologists). Other specialists such as gastrointestinal surgeons can also perform many of these procedures. Though less invasive than traditional methods, such as explorative surgery, the procedure does carry some risks.


  • bleeding of the bowel - usually after a biopsy or removal of a polyp
  • bleeding of your esophagus or stomach walls


  • perforation of your esophagus or stomach walls
  • perforation of the bowel


  • infection and/ or fever in an area where the endoscopy was performed

Respiratory Depression:

  • in people with severe lung diseases or liver cirrhosis
  • due to oversedation in people with chronic lung disease
  • Other:
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Reaction to medication
  • Allergic skin reaction
  • Severe irregular heartbeat
  • Pulmonary aspiration
  • Reaction of the vagus nerve system to the sedatives
  • Local pain
  • Dehydration (due to excess of laxatives and enemas for bowel preparation)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Explosion of combustible gases in the colon during removal of polyps
  • Pneumonia

Major complications occur in approximately 2 out of 1,000 procedures, with loss of life occurring in 1 out of 10,000. If your doctor performs dilation during the EGD, the complication rate can be higher due to dilation. Dilation is a delicate procedure that stretches a narrowed section of your esophagus, stomach, or small intestine.

If you experience any of the following complications, you should contact your doctor or seek immediate medical help.

  • Unexplained and chronic abdominal or chest pain, even heartburn
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting or reflux
  • Swallowing difficulties or pain on swallowing
  • Bleeding in your esophagus
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Weight loss
  • Anemia
  • Any long-standing and unexplained changes in bowel habits
  • Diarrhea
  • Black or tarry stools or bleeding through your rectum
  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath

This is not a complete list of all possible complications, and is only to be used as a guide to the types of complications that may occur during the procedure. Other health conditions, medicines, and other factors may increase your risk. Remember to discuss all possible complications and signs of complications thoroughly with your doctor prior to having ANY type of procedure, and follow instructions carefully to minimize risks that complications may develope.

Pediatric Endoscopy


Some reasons why your child may need an upper endoscopy include:

u00a0u00a0u00a0 Gastrointestinal bleeding
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Inflammatory bowel disease
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Crohnu2019s disease
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Intestinal polyps
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Allergic reactions
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Gallstones
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Ulcers
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Acid reflux
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Food Allergies
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Infection
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Celiac Disease
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Lactose intolerance
u00a0u00a0u00a0 Malnutrition or obesity

Gastroenterologists who specialize in the treatment of children, specifically, are calledu00a0 pediatric gastroenterologists. These doctors treat children ages newborn through teen. They need to have specialized training, including at least 4 years of medical school, three years of pediatric residency training, three years of additional training in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition, including medical research and treatment of infants, children, and teens with digestive, liver, and nutritional disorders, and certification in pediatrics from the American Board of Pediatrics, and in gastroenterology and nutrition from the American Board of Pediatrics Sub-board in Pediatric Gastroenterology. Endoscopic procedures pediatric gastroenterologists perform include esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.

If your child is scheduled to have an endoscopic procedure, it is extremely important to follow all of your doctor's instructions exactly. Failure to follow the instructions provided may cause the appointment to be cancelled. In most cases, fasting for a certain period is required. Your healthcare provider will tell you when your child should stop eating or drinking before the procedure. This also applies to babies and children who are breastfeeding. You should have previously discussed any medications your child may be taken (especially aspirin), in case they need to be stopped prior to the procedure as well. Many medications can cause anesthesia to be ineffective or otherwise conflict with the medications used during the procedure. Be sure the doctor knows if your child has any known allergies to medications, sedatives, or anesthesia or if they have any heart or lung problems.

Depending on your child's age the doctor may explain the procedure, and in some cases use pictures. In most cases, you will remain with your child after the IV sedation is administered, while they fall asleep. This will help your child to relax and may relieve any anxiety they may be experiencing. The procedure itself usually takes approximately 15 to 20 minutes.

After the procedure your child will be moved to a recovery room, in order to allow time for the medication to wear off. Unless directed otherwise, your child will be able to resume eating and drinking as usual, and return to his or her normal routine. It is normal for your child to experience some gassiness, or feeling bloated. Upper endoscopy will often cause a sore throat for 24 to 36 hours following the procedure.

In most cases, endoscopy is a very safe procedure. In rare cases, life threatening problem can occur. Some risks of endoscopic procedures are the possibility or puncturing or tearing of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum due to increased pressure as the scope and air are being passed through. Unexpected bleeding or infection can occur. A slow or irregular heartbeat, or low blood pressure, may occur and can cause sweating or fainting. Difficulty breathing due to fluid entering the lungs is also a possiblity. Always discuss the possible side effects and risks involved before agreeing to any medical procedure. Be sure you understand the signs of a potential problem or emergency so you know what to look for after you return home.



The Difference Between Endoscopy, Gastroscopy, and Colonoscopy


Gastroscopy, also referred to as upper gastro intestinal endoscopy and esophageo gastro duodenoscopy, is a particular type of endoscopy that is specifically used to inspect the upper gastro intestinal tract - the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Gastroscopy is performed with the intention of looking for abnormalities, obtaining a biopsy, or in treatments such as banding (the use of elastic bands to apply pressure and constrict parts of the body such as a bleeding hemorrhoid or esophageal varix) and sclerotherapy (a treatment for esophageal bleeding that involves the use of an endoscope and the injection of a sclerosing solution into the veins). While endoscopy can utilize surgical incisions depending on the intended procedure and area of viewing, gastroscopy is limited to insertion of the endoscope through the mouth. Both imaging procedures use the same instrument, an endoscope, and both can be enhanced with ultrasound. While endoscopy may require general anesthesia, gastroscopy requires only local anesthesia and sedation. Symptoms that may require gastroscopy include vomiting blood, stomach pain, difficulty swallowing, or suspected ulcer.

Colonoscopy is essentially the opposite of gastroscopy. Colonoscopy is performed with the intention of viewing the rectum and colon. The device is inserted through the anus, and advanced to the large intestine, extending up as high as the end of the small intestine. Colonoscopyu00a0allows an examination of the entire colon, though a more specific procedure calledu00a0sigmoidoscopy may be sufficient. Sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, the most distal part of the colon. In some cases, both colonoscopy and gastroscopy may be performed at the same time. Colonoscopy may be performed to determine the cause of dark blood in the stool, to test for abnormalities in the colon, such as polyps that may indicate cancer, to test for inflammatory bowel disease, or to determine the cause of anemia, for example.

Endoscopy is considered a minimally invasive procedure, and complications for all procedures may include perforation or bleeding, reaction to the medicine used for sedation, and infection. In rare cases, nerve damage may occur. For gastroscopic procedures, side effects patients may typically experience include a sore throat, or a temporary loss of the gag reflex. The most common side effects patients may experience after a colonoscopy is a feeling of cramping or bloating, which is usually relieved after the passage of gas. Patients should always discuss risks and complications thoroughly with their physician before having any surgical procedure.




Nasal Endoscopy Overview


What is nasal endoscopy used for?

The most common reasons nasal endoscopy will be performed is in the diagnosis of medical problems such as stuffiness or obstruction in the nasal passages, sinusitis, nasal polyps, nasal tumors, and epistaxis (nose bleeding). Nasal endoscopy can help to determine if the cause of your symptoms are due to infection, inflammation, or an allergic reaction. Symptoms that a patient may seek help for include, for example, drainage of mucous, facial pain or pressure in the area of the sinuses, nasal obstruction, congestion, or a decrease in the patient's sense of smell. Other symptoms may include ear infections, a feeling of ear fullness, or ear popping.

What preparations are made for the procedure?

Usually, just prior to the nasal endoscopy being performed, the physician will spray the nose with both a nasal decongestant to reduce any swelling in the nasal membranes and allow for the endoscope to more easily pass through, and a local anesthetic to numb the area and decrease the chance of sneezing from sensitivity. Patients rarely experience any pain from the procedure. However, if a patient has an unusually small or narrow nasal cavity, or if the nasal membranes are severely swollen, an additional numbing spray may be used for discomfort.

What does the nasal endoscopy procedure entail?

This medical procedure is usually performed in the doctor's clinic. The patient will be seated, and the physician will insert the endoscope into the patient's nose. The endoscope will be attached to a CRT monitor, providing live video, and the patient will remain awake and even be able to follow the procedure. The doctor is able to explain the findings as the exam is performed. The physician will be looking for signs of swelling in the mucous membranes, the presence of drainage from the sinus openings, or deviation of the nasal septum. He / she will also search for the presence of nasal polyps, nasal bleeding, or the presence of tumors within the nasal and sinus cavities. If infection is suspected, a sample may be taken to determine the cause of the infection. In the case that polyps or other masses are found, they may be removed at this time. The endoscope will be withdrawn and in most cases the patient will be allowed to return home the same day. The patient will be advised not to eat or drink for a few hours after the procedure.

What complications may arise?

While nasal endoscopy is generally a low-risk procedure for most people, all surgery carries some risk. Patients with bleeding disorders or those who take blood thinning medication such as aspirin or other anticoagulants should be sure to tell their physician, so that precautions may be taken. In some cases, the surgery may be inappropriate for those patients highly susceptible to nosebleeds. Other potential risks include adverse reactions to the anesthesia, or infection. In patients with heart disease, light-headedness or feeling faint may occur. Other common side effects include sore throat or discomfort in the period following the procedure.

As with any medical procedure, be sure to consult with your doctor about the necessity of the procedure, and whether the potential benefit outweighs the risk in your particular case. Discuss any medical conditions, medications, or other circumstances that may be relevant. Be sure you understand the possible side effects and what to do should a side effect or other unforeseen circumstance arise.

Proper Cleaning, Disinfection, and Sterilization of Endoscopic Equipment


It is essential that guidelines for thoroughly and correctly cleaning and disinfecting the endoscope are strictly adhered to. The process must be performed after every use. Familiarize yourself with and be sure to follow manufacturer and regulatory guidelines for your area when using and cleaning any endoscopy equipment.

Step 1:

Immediately upon finishing the procedure and removing the endoscope from the patient, it should be wiped down. Youu2019ll use a cloth or sponge treated with a special cleansing detergent, which needs to be sterilized or disposed of after use.

Step 2:

Bring the endoscope to the specified cleaning area, Flush it with cleaning solution until it is clear, and suction the endoscope with air, as determined by the manufactureru2019s instructions. Enclose the endoscope inside a container and move it to the area specified for disinfection and sterilization u2013 a room that is completely separate from the area the procedure is performed is required in order to minimize the risk of infection.

Step 3:

Manual cleaning is the next step in the process. Prepare a fresh solution of water and medical-grade, neutral pH detergent that is low-foaming and formulated for endoscopes and fill the basin, following the manufactureru2019s instructions for dilution and use. Fully submerge the endoscope in the solution, then brush all channels with a small, soft brush and non-abrasive and lint-free cleaning tools. Rinse and repeat until all visible debris has been removed. Some soaking may be required. Rinse thoroughly and use forced air to remove all water from the endoscope. Finish by drying with a soft, lint-free cloth.

Step 4:

Disinfection and sterilization is used to kill any microbes that are still present on the equipment. Follow the manufactureru2019s instructions in the use of these products, and test regularly for effectiveness. An automated re-processor can be used for this step, or the operation can be performed manually.
If disinfecting manually, submerge the endoscope and all removable parts in the cleaning solution. Flush this solution through all channels, with no air pockets remaining. Allow the endoscope to remain in the solution for the appropriate time.
Air should be used to purge all channels before removing the endoscope, followed by rinsing, drying, and flushing with alcohol.
In the case of automated disinfection, manually clean the endoscope prior to placing it in the machine. Follow the manufactureru2019s instructions to complete the full cleaning cycle from start to finish, without interruptions. If the process is interrupted, it will be necessary to start over. Small channels in some endoscopy tools may need to be reprocessed by hand if the machine cannot do so. Finally, apply a 70% isopropyl alcohol rinse cycle. This may need to be performed by hand. Carefully dry the equipment and store it appropriately to protect against contamination.

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Certain areas of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular a specific mid section of the small intestine, have proven difficult to access via other types of endoscopy. Using upper endoscopy, also called EGD, it is possible to view the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine) through an endoscope inserted through the mouth of the patient. A colonoscope can be inserted through the rectum, and u00a0allows visualizing the colon and ileum (distal portion of the small intestine). Neither allows access to the majority of the middle portion of the small intestine, but WCE technology does.u00a0

First approved by the Food And Drug Administration (FDA) in 2001, the procedure typically involves having a patient swallow a pill-sized capsule containing a camera which will, as it travels through the digestive tract, take thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a data receiver worn on the patient's belt, which can then be downloaded and assessed by a physician. A transmitted radio-frequency signal can be used to accurately estimate the location of the capsule and to track it in real time inside the body and gastrointestinal tract.u00a0

The patient will fast overnight, the same as they would for other types of endoscopy, and upon arriving at the physician's office, they would be fitted for the equipment, and hooked up to leads such as those used during an EKG, before swallowing the capsule and being released. They would then return in about 8 hours for the removal of the equipment. Within one to three days, the disposable capsule would pass through the system naturally.u00a0

The technology has evolved over time to achieve advancements in areas of improved resolution, increased battery life, and recently CapsoVision Inc. announced the launch of CapsoCloudu2122, allowing physicians to now "extract exam data without processing capsules post-ingestion with HIPAA-compliant cloud-based exam management system". This service is exclusively available for the CapsoCam Plus - a device touted by the company to be the only endoscopy capsule to offer 360 degree panoramic lateral imaging. This means a patient could simply leave the office after swallowing the device, return to normal activities, and then retrieve the capsule, send it to the CapsoCloud Download Center, where the data is uploaded to a cloud based exam management system to be later accessed by the physician - eliminating the need for the data receiver and the return to the physician's office later in the day.



How to Prepare For An Endoscopic Procedure


Preparing For An Endoscopic Procedure

Communication Is Key

  • Thoroughly discuss all possible health concerns and conditions with your doctor before your procedure, including pregnancy, current medications, and allergies. Some medications, such as anti-inflammatory medications and aspirin or other blood thinners, can increase the risk of bleeding during the procedure, and may even need to be stopped for several days prior to the procedure. Antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, and other medications that may cause drowsiness may interfere with the sedatives. Only stop taking a medication if the doctor orders you to do so.
  • Ask your doctor why the procedure is being performed. There should be a clear understanding of what the procedure is intended to find or correct. Endoscopy can be used to visually identify potential problems, biopsy or collect sample tissue, or repair damage to an area, for example, and you should be aware of exactly what purpose your doctor aims to achieve.
  • Be sure your doctor is open to discussing the possible risks of the procedure. All surgeries carry certain risks and none should be taken lightly. Possible complications may include:
    • Aspiration - This occurs when liquid or food enters the lungs, commonly due to eating or drinking before the procedure. If you have been given instructions to fast, be sure to follow them.
    • Bleeding - This can occur if tissue samples or polyps are removed or biopsies are performed. Some medications may increase this risk of bleeding, but in most cases bleeding is easily managed.
    • Allergic Reactions - Reactions to certain medications, such as the sedatives given during the procedure, can occur. The sedatives may also interfere with medications you may be taking.
    • Tearing - While highly unlikely, tearing is a possible complication to some endoscopic procedures and should be discussed as a risk.

Arrive Prepared

  • If your procedure requires that you be given a sedative, you will be unable to drive home afterwards as the effects can cause drowsiness. Be sure to bring a driver with you, as the procedure can't be performed unless you have arranged transportation beforehand. Do not make plans to drive or otherwise operate machinery following the procedure.
  • Dress in light, comfortable clothing. Choose something that is loose fitting and can be easily removed and put back on afterwards in case you experience discomfort. Avoid wearing jewelry or other accessories. Glasses and dentures will need to be removed before the surgery begins.
  • If you have paperwork such as consent forms to bring with you, be sure to fill them out the night before the surgery and place them where you are sure you won't forget them.

After The Surgery

  • Allow for time to recover from the procedure. You will need to be observed for about one hour before being released. Avoid driving, operating machinery, or making any life-changing decisions until you are sure the sedative has worn off. Experiencing some fatigue is common, and you should plan to relax and rest the remainder of the day. Talk to your doctor about when it is reasonable for you to return to work.
  • Many patients experience a feeling of bloating as a result of the air introduced during the procedure, or a sore throat. Both of these are common and should not last long. In most cases, you should be able to eat within about an hour after the procedure.
  • If a biopsy has been taken, the patient should call for results in roughly 1 to 2 weeks unless otherwise indicated by your doctor.
  • In rare cases, severe complications may occur. These should be reported immediately. Symptoms of a serious complication may include the following:
    • Severe abdominal pain - more than gas cramps
    • A firm distended abdomen
    • Vomiting
    • Fever or temperature in excess of 101u00baF or 38u00baC
    • Difficulty swallowing or severe pain in the throat



Exploring Various Endoscopes and Thier Uses

  • Arthroscope

Arthroscopy is used for examination and / or treatment of damage to the joints, for example, during knee surgery.u00a0

  • Brochoscope

Bronchoscopes are used to examine the lungs for infection, bleeding, tumors, or blockages, and to take tissue or mucus samples.

  • Colonoscope

Colonoscopes allow you to view the interior lining of the large intestine to identify possible ulcers, polyps, tumors, inflammation, or bleeding.

  • Colposcope

A colposcope is placed at the opening of the vagina and provides an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix, and is typiaclly used for the purpose of preventing cervical cancer by detection of precancerous lesions.

  • Cystoscope

A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra, for the purpose of viewing the interior of the bladder, for the treatment of urinary problems.

  • Duodenoscope

A duodenoscope is inserted through the mouth and is used to view the small intestine, and is useful for removing gall stones, draining bile ducts, and treating pancreatitis for example.

  • Enteroscope

Enteroscopes are used in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, infections, viruses, bleeding, tumors or other abnormalities within the digestive system. u00a0

  • Esophagoscope

An esophagoscope is used to visualize the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract to the duodenum. It is inserted through the mouth, and while considered a minimally invasive procedure, will typically cause a sore throat.

  • Gastroscope

Also inserted through the mouth, a gastroscope is used in the diagnosis and treatment of problems such asu00a0ulcers, cancers, and celiac disease within the stomach and duodenum (small intestine).

  • Hysteroscope

Hysteroscopes are inserted into the uterus through the cervix, and provide the ability to remove polyps, fibroids, adhesions, and lost IUDs, or perform biopsies, endometrial ablation, or for cannulation of the fallopian tubes.

  • Laparoscope

Inserted through a small incision in the abdomen, laparoscopes diagnose and treat problems within the stomach, liver, or other abdominal organ, including female reproductive organs.

  • Laryngoscope

Inserted through the mouth, laryngoscopes treat and diagnose problems in the larynx. It may also be used to facilitate tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia or cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  • Neuroendoscope

A neuroendoscope is inserted through a small incision in the skull near the target area of the brain which is to be treated.

  • Proctoscope

A proctoscope, also known as a rectoscope, is typically used to diagnose or treat hemorroids or rectal polyps.

  • Sigmoidoscope

Sigmoidoscopes are inserted through the anus and used for examination of the large intestine, from the rectum to the most distal part of the colon.

  • Thoracoscope

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 A thoracoscope is inserted through a small incision in the chest, and used for examination, biopsy or treatment of disease within the pleural cavity (lungs) and thoracic cavity (heart).

  • Ureteroscope

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 Ureteroscopes are used for examination of the urinary tract. Common reasons for this procedure include diagnosis or removal of ureter or kidney stones, urinary tract infections, andu00a0 cancers, polyps, and tumors.

Some other types of tools commonly used during endoscopy include:

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 Flexible Forceps ( For taking tissue samples )

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 Biopsy Forcepsu00a0 ( For taking tissue samples or removing suspicious growths )

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 Cytology Brushu00a0u00a0 ( For taking cell samples )

u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0u00a0 Suture removal Forcepsu00a0u00a0 ( For removing stitches inside the body )



A Little Something to Know About Endoscopy Equipment Cleansing

Cleaning the Equipment:
1. Before your technician cleans the equipment, itu2019s mandatory that s/he has gone through the instruction manual provided by the company.
2. They should be familiar with all the parts that form the equipment and understand how to clean each and every bit of it.
3. The endoscopic equipment needs a high level of disinfection since itu2019s exposed to a lot of microorganisms as soon as the equipment is removed from the patient.
4. Itu2019s mandatory procedure to douse the equipment into enzymatic cleaning solution, as recommended by the manufacturers.
5. Some of the old endoscopy equipment cannot be totally immersed in water. If your endoscope did not include a manual, call the manufacturer for a copy before attempting any cleaning.

What to do after Cleaning is Complete?
After the cleaning process is complete, you have to make sure that the equipment is working properly. To do so, you will need to reduce the pressure on the air/water valve to force water through the outlet. Also reduce the pressure on the suction valve, while the tip is dipped in the cleaning solution. Alternating air and cleaning solution will remove more debris from internal layers.
1. In the newer models of the equipment, manufacturer may have provided an air water adapter. The function of this adapter is to ensure a continuous flow of air or water, through their respective channels.
2. After you have turned off the air pump, with gentle hands remove the air/water valve and attach the cleaning adapter. Then turn the air pump on, and for about 30 to 45 seconds allow air to pass through the channels. After the time has passed reduce the pressure on the valve to allow water to run through their respective channels.
3. Turn off the power for the video processor or camera, and with delicate hands detach the endoscope.
8. Wipe excess debris off endoscope with gauze sponges and enzymatic cleaning solution. If it has been recommended by the manufacturers, place a cap on top of the equipment and then carefully carry the entire kit to the re-processing area where you need to perform some more cleaning using gauze, sponges and disinfectants, in order to make it ready for the next procedure.

Endoscopy in Veterinary Medicine


Interventional Endoscopy typically combines the use of endoscopic equipment with fluoroscopy and/or ultrasound, to perform other procedures, such as retrieval of foreign bodies, stone or polyp removal, balloon dilation of nasopharyngeal stenosis and esophageal strictures, tracheal or urethral stenting, and even feeding tube placement for example. In the case of an animal ingesting a sharp or otherwise dangerous object, an endoscope can be inserted through a protective overtube in order to retrieve the object without fear of causing further dame during the extraction.

A pet undergoing an endoscopic procedure will be placed under general anesthesia, and will not experience any discomfort. This may or may not require tests be performed to determine if it is safe for your pet to be sedated. The animal will likely need to fast for 12 hours prior to the procedure to insure the stomach and intestinal tract are empty of all food if undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. For a colonoscopy, oral medication should be administered prior to the procedure to remove fecal matter from the intestinal tract. For an exploration of certain areas such as the nasal cavity, it may be necessary to determine if bleeding is a concern. In almost all cases, the endoscopic procedures are performed as outpatient procedures, and your pet will be able to return home the same day.

New innovations are being discovered every day, and more and more veterinary practices are adopting the use of endoscopy for pets, so if you find yourself in a situation where surgery might be avoided, ask your vet whether endoscopy is an option, and even if they don't offer it as a service, they may be able to refer you to someone who will - it's worth it to ensure your pet gets the best quality care with a lower risk of complications, less side effects, and faster healing times.

What is an ERCP?


Reasons for ERCP:

  • Gallstones - a condition where a small "stone", more formally known as a calculus, is created from bile acid and cholesterol derivatives
  • Acute or chronic pancreatitis - an inflammation or swelling of the pancreas that causes symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
  • Intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma - cancer of the bile ducts
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma -u00a0the most common type of primary liver cancer
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma - the most common type of pancreatic cancer
  • Other types of tumors, cancers, or blockages of the digestive system - numerous other conditions can require teatment with ERCP


Common Treatments with ERCP:

  • Sphincterotomy - a procedure used to open the ducts into the bowel to aid drainage or remove stones in the ducts
  • Stenting - a small tube made of plastic or metal inserted into a blocked or narrowed duct to hold it open
  • Removal of gallstones - ERCP can remove gallstones from the bile ducts but not from the gallbladder
  • Take tissue samples - ERCP can be used to take tissue samples to diagnose tumors found within the pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts


Risks and Complications:

ERCP is a low-risk procedure, but as with any procedure there is always a risk of complications. The most common complication of ERCP is pancreatitis, and is more likely to occur in patients with a healthy pancreas. Pancreatitis is characterized by swelling and imflammation of the pancreas. Usually, this will last for a few days, during which time you will need to remain in the hospital for pain medication and IV fluids, but can (rarely) become more serious. Other complications can include allergic reaction to the anesthesia or dye used during the procedure, bleeding, perforation of the bowel, and infection. Additionally, it is important to communicate with your doctor about any other medications, prescribed or otherwise, that you may be taking, in order to avoid adverse reactions between medications, especially blood thinning medications, such as aspirin or warfarin.

Seek emergency care if you have any of the following symptoms after the procedure:

  • Severe pain in the chest or abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting or vomiting blood
  • Bleeding or bloody (black) stool
  • Bloating
  • Fever higher than 100u00b0F (37.8u00b0C)
  • Difficulty breathing, or swallowing


What You Should Know about Cleaning Your Endoscopy Equipment

Doctor holding endoscope in hand during procedure


Are you caring for your endoscope equipment properly? If not, you might have to face certain consequences. At M.D. Endoscopy, we know just how important it is to clean and care for your equipment properly. Learn about a few of the consequences below that you can avoid by ensuring youu2019re following the proper cleaning methods for the types and brands of endoscopes you use in your procedures.

2 Major Consequences of Improper Cleaning

Before using an endoscope on a patient, you should be sure that it has been cleaned, disinfected, and sanitized. If you skip any steps, it could result in the following:

  • Cross-Contamination: Failing to properly clean an endoscope can result in major complications for your patients. Using an endoscope on a patient that hasnu2019t been thoroughly disinfected and sanitized could increase the risk of passing on a deadly or disabling infection to your patients. In fact, the ECRI Institute rated improper cleaning of complex, reusable medical instruments as 2017u2019s second-biggest health technology hazard, noting that endoscopes fall into this category.
  • Device Failures: Not only can inadequate cleaning methods spread diseases and illnesses, but the function of the endoscopic instruments themselves can suffer as well. Instrument channels getting blocked is the most common device failure resulting from improper cleaning. When you have an malfunctioning equipment, youu2019ll end up wasting your time and money getting it repaired.

To avoid the above, you need to ensure that you and your team are cleaning instruments properly.

The Key to Proper Cleaning

If you want to prevent infections and keep your instruments in optimal condition, you need to have a foolproof cleaning process set in place. The following are essential for infection control and prevention:

  • Having a dedicated space for cleaning the instruments
  • Cleaning endoscopes manually
  • Keeping records of the cleaning, disinfecting, and sanitizing of equipment
  • Disinfecting equipment daily even if it was cleaned and disinfected the day before
  • Using different cleaners designated for different endoscope types and brands
  • When possible, avoiding or limiting exposure to cleaners and disinfectants that could result in adverse reactions for your patients

The most important thing is making sure that you have a system in place that will keep you compliant with all regulations and minimize the risks of spreading disease as much as possible. Because the cleaning processes and cleaning solutions will differ by brand and type, you should be sure to sure to familiarize yourself and your teams with the proper procedures for each instrument.

Have specific questions about the cleaning process? Contact us today! Weu2019re happy to help you make sure youu2019re following the right cleaning procedures.

5 Reasons to Use M.D. Endoscopy to Handle You Endoscope Repairs

Looking for a reputable company to repair your endoscopy equipment? Look no further! We've listed a few reasons why you can trust M.D. Endoscopy to handle your repair needs.

We Repair Every Model Type

From major brands like Olympus and Pentax to brands like Fujinon, we can repair any model. We regularly fix the following:

Do you need something else repaired that's not listed above? Contact us to see if we can handle your request.

We Are Experienced

At M.D. Endoscopy, we know scopes. Our OEM repair technicians have over 35 years of combined experience repairing surgical equipment and endoscopic products. Because of our vast experience, we're able to better understand the needs of our customers.

We Provide Quality Work at Reasonable Prices

An alternative to high-priced repairs from the manufacturers, we offer fair and realistic prices. In fact, you can save 50-60% when we handle the repairs for you. In addition to our reasonable prices, we offer free repair estimates and a 50% discount on your first minor or major repair (excludes complete refurbishments).

Better yet, we offer all of this without sacrificing quality. To ensure high-quality repairs, we have skilled OEM technicians that complete a comprehensive 42-point diagnostic check before getting started.

We Have Fast Turnaround Times

We know the urgency of getting your medical equipment repaired quickly. For that reason, we offer the following turnaround times:

  • Minor repairs: Returned to you within 1-2 days
  • Major repairs: Returned to you within 3-4 days
  • Complete overhauls: Returned to you within 5-7 days

We work hard to repair your equipment so that you can get back to work quickly. We even offer loaner equipment upon request so you're not left in a lurch. If your equipment needs a complete overhaul, we even give you the loaner equipment free of charge!

We Back Our Repairs with Warranties

We're so confident in our repairs that we offer the following warranties:

  • 12-month warranty: Offered on all minor and major repairs
  • 24-month warranty: Offered when a complete overhaul has been performed

What makes our warranties special? Not only are they comprehensive, no-hassle warranties but they are the longest warranties in the industry!

Are you anxious to have us get started on your endoscope repairs? Contact us today to start taking advantage of our trouble-free repair services.

What are the Risks of Used Endoscopy Equipment?

While many people love thrift shopping and donu2019t mind owning second-hand items, there are just some things that should be purchased new. Amongst those is underwear, toothbrushes, and flash drives. But what about medical equipment?

Used medical equipment can have pros and cons. On the one hand, the price is usually lower and allows hospitals and offices to purchase what they need at an affordable rate. On the other hand, however, you donu2019t always know at the time of the purchase if it will function well, has been damaged, or has been improperly used or cared for.

u00a0Find a reliable sales company when purchasing used equipment. This will ensure that you not only get the price that you want, but that the equipment will function properly as well.

M.D. Endoscopy knows the importance of getting quality equipment at an affordable price and so we have been providing refurbished, warrantied endoscopes and other equipment for nearly 27 years. We buy, sell, and repair endoscopy equipment to help you get what you need at a price that you love.

Conditions Diagnosed Using An Upper Endoscopy

How Is An Upper Endoscopy Performed?

An upper endoscopy procedure is performed by feeding a long and flexible tube (an endoscope) with a camera attached to it down the patient’s esophagus and into their stomach and duodenum. The endoscope will pump air into the patient’s stomach, making it easier for the small camera to send a video image to a monitor. The doctor will use this monitor to examine the lining of the upper GI tract. This fifteen to thirty minute procedure will be performed by a gastroenterologist, surgeon, or other health care provider who has been trained to do so. The patient will receive light sedation prior to beginning the in-house procedure, which should wear off with an hour or two.

Symptoms Doctors Will Perform An Upper Endoscopy For

A doctor will perform an upper endoscopy when abnormal symptoms are present, or when lab tests come back abnormal. Symptoms that a doctor may perform one for are:

-          Persistent heartburn

-          Bleeding

-          Nausea and vomiting

-          Pain

-          Unexplained weight loss

-          Problems swallowing

-          and other symptoms

Conditions Diagnosed Using An Upper Endoscopy

Doctors can use an upper endoscopy to diagnose many different diseases. Some of these include:

-          Anemia

-          Gastroesophageal reflux disease

-          Ulcers

-          Cancer

-          Inflammation, or swelling

-          Precancerous abnormalities

-          Celiac disease

A few of these conditions will require a biopsy to complete the diagnosis. A doctor will obtain the biopsy by passing an instrument through the endoscope to acquire a piece of tissue. This piece of tissue will be small and is needed for proper diagnosis of conditions, such as:

-          Cancer

-          Celiac disease

-          Gastritis

Other Reasons A Doctor Will Perform An Upper Endoscopy

Other reasons a doctor can use an upper endoscopy are:

-          Treat conditions

-          Dilate strictures

-          Remove objects that are caught in the upper GI tract

Endoscopes are important to utilize in the medical field when properly diagnosing numerous diseases and conditions. They’re able to provide doctors with a clearer image than ultrasounds, making a condition easier to diagnose. M.D. Endoscopy has nearly 27 years of experience in endoscope sales and repair. Because we value our customers, we provide the only 24-month warranty in the business. Visit to learn more about us, view our products, and/or contact us.

High Quality Tools for Endoscopic Ultrasounds

When you need high-quality images of internal organs in the abdomen or thoracic cavity, one of the best options for obtaining those images is an endoscopic ultrasound. With the ultrasound transducer on the end of the endoscope, you can obtain more accurate and detailed images of the organs in question than you would if your used an external ultrasound transducer. This can help you to obtain quality images of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, lymph nodes, lungs, and of course, the GI tract.

Why Choose Endoscopic Ultrasounds?

One of the primary reasons to choose endoscopic ultrasounds for your patients is that it is minimally invasive. In many cases, your only other option will be surgical. Endoscopic ultrasounds will help you evaluate the findings from other imaging tests more precisely or determine the extent of diseases and cancers without performing exploratory surgeries. They can also help you to pinpoint the exact location where you will want to perform a biopsy or even locate a precise area where medications can be injected directly into the pancreas, liver, or other organs. Faster, less invasive procedures will speed your patients recovery.

Get High Quality Imaging Tools from M.D. Endoscopy

When you want to offer endoscopic ultrasounds to your patients, you’ll want top quality equipment to work with, such as the Olympus EXERA II GF-UCT180 Ultrasound Linear Echoendoscope / Video Gastroscope. This endoscope delivers high quality ultrasounds with great imaging depth. It features a detachable ultrasound cable to make it easier to handle, reprocess, and store. M.D. Endoscopy also offers a wide array of image capture devices to make recording, storing, and reviewing the results of endoscopies and endoscopic ultrasounds as simple as possible for the imaging technician. Examples of great image capture devices are the Medicapture USB-170 Image Capture Device, Medicapture USB-200 Image Capture Device, and the Medicapture USB-300 High Definition Video Recording, for when you need the greatest possible resolution.

The Best Prices for the Best Imaging Solutions

There’s a reason that M.D. Endoscopy is the leader in refurbished, pre-owned endoscopy equipment. All our machines have been impeccably restored to the manufacturer’s original standards, and we are so confident that our solutions will work for you, that we offer a 24-month warranty against defects in materials and workmanship.

Since your patients are your priority, you want fast accurate diagnoses from minimally invasive procedures. For that you’ll want the best imaging tools from M.D. Endoscopy. To make an order, US customers can call us at 1-800-866-ENDO. International customers can reach us at 386-492-7993.

What is an Endoscopy?

An endoscopy is a (relatively) minimally invasive processu2014non surgicalu2014to examine the digestive tract. A bendable tube called an endoscope is inserted in one of two areas to view the digestive tract through a monitor. In an upper endoscopy, the tube is passed through the mouth and the throat, allowing a view into the northern region of the digestive tractu2014the esophagus, stomach and higher portion of the small intestine. In a colonoscopy (sometimes synonymous with sigmoidoscopy), the endoscope reaches through the rectum to examine the large intestine. In special cases, the pancreas and gallbladder can also be observed, but this would require a more complex procedure.

There are a few reasons to have an endoscopy. Generally, a doctor will examine these particular parts of the body due to consideration of infections, damage or cancer. In certain cases, an endoscopic biopsy will be necessary; this requires forceps that would acquire a tissue sample, which would then be provided to a lab for testing. Prior to an endoscopy, a doctor will have gone through various blood tests to accurately understand a need for said procedure.

Preparation preempting an endoscopy would be (generally) a half-day fast. Additionally, certain doctors may suggest an enema or laxative for the night prior, in order to clear out the bowels. Before the actual endoscopy, doctors will engage in a physical examination, to make sure the patient is able to go through the procedure. It is also useful to consider having a designated driver post-process in the case of prolonged effects from the anesthesia.

There are certain side effects of an endoscopy, but most of the following are rare: chest pain, organ damage, persisting pain in areas involved in the endoscopy, and swelling and redness in the vicinity of the incision. There are also more likely side effects, such as dark stool, vomiting, and difficulty swallowingu2014either way, a doctor should be consulted if any side effect were to occur.

Immediately after the procedure, the doctor will close the wound caused by the incision and bandage the area. He/she will provide instructions to care for the wound. Sometimes the procedure may leave a patient with slight discomfort, but generally thatu2019s nothing of concern.

For a quality endoscopy, itu2019s important to have quality products. Refurbished endoscopy equipment and used endoscopes that are a fraction of the price but exactly the same in quality to new equipment are available at M.D. Endoscopy, Inc.

Endoscopic Cross Contaminations

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Last February, UCLA released a statement concerning an outbreak of the carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacteria that occurred a few months prior. It involved a cross contamination in the use of a duodenoscope. Two patients died from the infection and five more were also infected. A similar case took place in Illinois just months before this incident. Endoscopies take place every day, so you would think that itu2019s a safe procedure. Sou2026

Why do these cross-contamination cases pop up?

Whenever you undergo an endoscopic operation, you are essentially sharing a used endoscope with someone else, meaning you are subject to an endoscope that may not be 100% rid of the previous useru2019s germs. Any time a doctor uses an Olympus bronchoscope, there is a real possibility of an infection passed from a previous patient. The risk for infection or outbreak is significant, with over 19 million people undergoing endoscopic procedures every year.

A few reasons why patients are infected are reprocessing failures, guideline neglections, and defective equipment. Infections were more likely to take place when incorrect disinfection methods were used. This ranges from failure to flush channels to using expired detergent. Therefore, it is more important than ever to care for your Olympus endoscopes. We discussed how to go about upkeeping your refurbished endoscopy equipment in a previous blog post.

However, even when applying best practices to disinfect endoscopy equipment patients can still be subject to cross contamination. Instruments that have long, narrow channels are difficult to thoroughly clean. Germs have a higher chance of hiding in the scope the greater the complexity of the endoscope.

What solutions are there?

Using disposable sheaths that cover the tube-like apparatus is the best way to prevent an infection. This way, the endoscope itself never touches the patient. It is a similar approach to using disposable, one-time use needles so there is no risk of cross contamination. Like needles these sheaths are inexpensive, disposable, and very effective in its one-time use.

Sheaths are also cost-effective. Cleaning procedures are usually a 43-step process for a reduction of bacteria, not a complete purge. Using a sheath would reduce the number of steps drastically down to two. Because sheaths are used as buffers between the patient and the Olympus endoscope, the equipment does not get contaminated, reducing the need for hard chemicals and increasing the life of refurbished endoscopes.

By raising discourse for endoscopic safety, we can eventually utilize sheathing technology and integrate it into this common procedure to eliminate infections via cross contamination. For used or refurbished endoscopy equipment sold in pristine condition, come to M.D. Endoscopy for the endoscope that fits your needs.

Endoscopy Overview

Endoscopy Overview

An endoscopy examines your digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and large intestine. It allows surgeons and doctors to find any problems in your body without having to make large incisions or put the person on an anesthesia. The reasons why a person would need to have an endoscopy include, but are not limited to, stomach pain, ulcers, trouble swallowing, digestive tract bleeding, changes in bowel habits, growths in the colon like polyps, and infections.

An endoscope such as the Olympus PCF-160AL is a flexible tube with a small camera at the end. A monitor is connected so that the doctor can see. It is capable of treating digestive tract problems via devices can be slipped through the endoscopes to stop any bleeding that’s detected or remove polyps, gallstones, or other substances created by the body.

There are different kinds of endoscopes depending on the organ being examined. They include:

Endoscopy preparations

Upper endoscopies require you to fast anywhere from six to eight hours, depending on your doctor’s instructions before the procedure begins. Examining the colon requires the complete evacuation of waste so a laxative is taken the night before the clear the system. In both cases the digestive system must be cleared of any substance so that the doctor can make a comprehensive examination. Sedation is also provided before a procedure, during which you will be monitored by a nurse anesthetist, to increase comfort. It produces relaxation and light sleep through an injection.

The Follow-Up

After the endoscopy, your doctor will close any incisions that he made and dress it with bandages. Most procedures will leave you with some discomfort that will go away after a short time. You will wake up from the sedative, but there will be residual effects of the medicine so do not drive until the next day when it will completely wear off. While you will be able to go home on the same day, most facilities recommend you not to handle machinery or make important decisions for the rest of the day. After you wake up you will be observed by a qualified person in the endoscopy or sent to a recovery room. If you had an upper endoscopy done you may be left with a mild sore throat, which responds to saline gargles or feeling of distention from the air that was used during the procedure. While you will be able to go home on the same day, most facilities recommend you not to handle machinery.

Leader in Refurbished Endoscopy Equipment

M.D. Endoscopy is a name you can Trust

We here, at M.D. Endoscopy, are proud to be the leading seller of refurbished, pre-owned endoscopy equipment. When looking for pre-owned highly technical equipment, it is of the utmost importance that you can trust the seller.

M.D. Endoscopy has been in the business of endoscopy sales and repair for nearly 27-years. We have accrued vast knowledge of endoscopy equipment, so that we know exactly how to repair and ensure that all of our pre-owned equipment is working at 100% efficiency.

Having been in the business for so long, we understand the current budget problems and restrictions that plague healthcare practitioners, and we will work with you to find a solution.

Purchase with Complete confidence

At M.D. Endoscopy we are so confident in our equipment, that we offer our valued customers the only 24 – month warranty in the industry. All equipment purchased from M.D. Endoscopy is GUARANTEED against defects in materials and workmanship for 24-months after the original purchase date.

We extend this warranty to all of our refurbished endoscopes, endoscopy accessories and endoscope complete refurbishments/overhauls.

M.D. Endoscopy refurbished, pre-owned endoscopy equipment sales have been a huge success for the customer and us. Our customers enjoy the additional savings with buying pre-owned equipment, meeting their own bottom-line, all while having the peace of mind that is given by the longest, no hassle warranty in the business.

This warranty ensures that the customer and M.D. Endoscopy will build a lasting mutually beneficial relationship.

We have a Huge Selection to Choose From

M.D. Endoscopy is thrilled to offer an extensive inventory of endoscopy equipment ranging from:

  • Video Scopes
  • Fiber Scopes
  • Light Sources
  • Processors
  • Monitors
  • Printers
  • Cameras
  • Adapters

M.D. Endoscopy is proud to offer these products from all major manufactures including but not limited to: Olympus, Pentax and Fujinon.

Every single pre-owned endoscope must be refurbished and re-inspected to ensure that each endoscope is up to the original manufacturer’s specifications.

Satisfaction Guarantee

M.D. Endoscopy also offers a 7-day Satisfaction Guarantee on all equipment sold. We do this to ensure our customers are pleased with their purchase, while not having to worry about a disaster occurring with their newly purchased equipment. Click here to learn more.

To learn more about our refurbished, pre-owned endoscopy equipment that has the only 24-month warranty in the business, please email M.D. Endoscopy at or call 1-(800) 866-ENDO (3636) today.

Avoid Patient Injury and Malpractice Suits

The Importance of Properly Caring for Your Patients

Doctors take an oath to care for their patients to the best of their abilities. Over the course of their career, they become comfortable in their abilities but that does not mean they should become relaxed in their care for their patients.

It is vital to the health of your patients that doctors take the proper precautions to ensure their patients are treated with the best care. Otherwise, the patient suffers and so does the doctor were the patient to sue for malpractice.

Avoiding a suit is simple when the right procedures are put into place.

Communication is Key

Being open and honest is the best approach to any visit or consultation. Doctors must listen to the patient and be clear when providing answers and instructions and provide realistic expectation. Always address complaints and document every visit. Physicians who provide explanations are more likely to have a malpractice suit thrown out.

Stay Up-To-Date on Standards

The medical field is constantly changing and it is important that a physician keeps up with them. It can be as simple as changes in disease management and complicated as new surgical procedures. Clinics and hospitals must also take on the responsibility to keep their doctors updated on all current procedures.

Update and Fix Equipment

Working with outdated and broken equipment can lead to complications during a visit or surgery. Which can lead to a malpractice suit of the patient is harmed during the procedure. All outdated equipment should be updated and broken equipment should be disposed of or fixed.

Set Procedures and Policies

A set of policies and procedures should be put into place for all physicians and hospital personnel. They are important to keep everyone on the same page and avoid accidents due to miscommunication. A committee that includes physicians should review them on an annual basis to amend if necessary.

Endoscopy Equipment

At M.D. Endoscopy, we provide endoscopy equipment to replace your outdated ones. We also offer repair services to ensure that the equipment is safe to use. For more information about our equipment or services, please visit our site.

How to Care for Medical Equipment

Importance of Caring for Medical Equipment

Modern medical equipment is sophisticated machines that are vital for the tasks that must be completed on a daily basis. While failure to operate is few and far between, when they do occur, they throw a wrench into the daily workings.

Not to mention that it is bad form for a hospital or any medical facility to have malfunctioning equipment. To prevent any mishaps from occurring, it is imperative that you treat the machines with care. Here are some ways to ensure that your machines remain in tip-top shape.

How to Care for Medical Equipment

Problems with the machines can arise as early as the set-up. If you are unfamiliar with the functions of a new machine or how to set it up, then seek out a professional. They will not only set up the machine but show you how to use and care for it.

Mistakes happen especially for those who are new. There will be learning curves that they must overcome but it is important to the patient’s health and the health of the machine that employees are properly trained. If they are not, you run the risk of having your machine running incorrectly. That can lead to various problems with the patient’s care and can potentially damage the machine. Choose a senior staff member to train new employees on machines and to oversee them during their first month.

It is hard to conduct the basic maintenance for your machines when the sole focus is on the patient’s care. Someone will have to clean the tools and switch out tools and other aspects of the machine. It is best to hire an individual whose role is focused on these tasks. It frees up the time for physicians to conduct their job and care for their patient’s while ensuring the machines are being cared for.

Even with the best care, some machines will require repair. At M.D. Endoscopy, we provide the repair services for your video scopes, fiberscopes, and other endoscopy medical devices. For additional information about our services, please see our site or contact us online.

MD Endoscopy Refurbished Scopes vs. New from Olympus

Does your facility need to buy more endoscopes? Do you buy new from Olympus or do you save money and buy Refurbished from a third party endoscopy company (like.....MD Endoscopy)? If you ask Olympus they will tell you all kinds of horrible things about third party sales and service companies. What Olympus won't tell you is that the subpar repairs they send pictures of in their newsletters are from the worst of the worst repairs they see.

They will never show you the expert repairs and parts from most third party service companies. You can't always believe everything you read in the Olympus newletters......think about it..... how honest is Olympus when they just lost a $600M+ kickback scheme lawsuit back in March 2016 and we all know about the duodenoscope super bug outbreak which killed hundreds of patients all over the US. How many of you knew that during this outbreak, Olympus decided to increase their profits even more by having a 28% price hike on new TJF-Q180V endoscopes. Profits are necessary for any business but profiting from horrific situations is unconscionable.

The business practices from the majority of third party endoscope sales and service companies like ourselves, have a very different approach at making money and its called hard work, dedication and integrity. We all know you have many options when buying scopes so we do our best to assure you receive the best quality and the most affordable scopes, repairs and equipment. If you have never purchased Refurbished endoscopes before, please give us a try and see the difference it makes in your practice. We would love to hear of your experience with third party repair companies and even any stories of Olympus.

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